About the Data

ECHO data focuses on compliance- and enforcement-related information for regulated facilities, including:

  • Permit data
  • Inspection/compliance evaluation dates and findings
  • Violations of environmental regulations
  • Enforcement actions
  • Penalties assessed

ECHO includes EPA, state, local and tribal environmental agency compliance and enforcement records that are contained in EPA national databases. ECHO also incorporates many EPA environmental data sets to provide additional context for analyses. Learn more about:

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ECHO Data Sources

Below is a summary of data included in ECHO. Note that the time period of data displayed throughout ECHO can vary:

  • The past five years of facility inspection and enforcement data (from the date of extraction from the source database) are presented.
  • The past three years of facility compliance data are presented as quarters of compliance (three-month periods) based on the federal fiscal year.
  • All years of EPA formal enforcement action data from ICIS are available via the EPA Enforcement Case Search.
  • Additional years of data are available in the ECHO Downloads.
DatabaseDescriptionDate Data ExtractedExpected Next Extract
FRSThe Facility Registry Service (FRS) contains facility identification information.3/21/20153/28/2015
AFSThe Air Facility System (AFS) contains data regarding regulated Clean Air Act stationary sources and their compliance records.

*EPA is transitioning to a modernized data management system (ICIS-Air) to manage Clean Air Act data. During the transition period, ECHO Clean Air Act data are frozen and reflect data as of October 17, 2014. Please note that it's possible some facilities have since returned to compliance or have new violations. Clean Air Act data refreshes are expected to resume in April 2015.
ICIS-AirThe Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) for Air contains data regarding regulated Clean Air Act stationary sources and their compliance records.None*April 2015
ICIS-FE&CThe Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) Federal Enforcement and Compliance (FE&C) contains EPA data for inspections and enforcement actions for the following environmental laws:

  • Clean Air Act (CAA)
  • Clean Water Act (CWA)
  • Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
  • Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)
  • Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA)
  • Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA)
  • Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
  • Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA)
  • Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)
ICIS-NPDESICIS National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (ICIS-NPDES) contains permit information, limits, and discharge monitoring data for facilities managed under the CWA NPDES program.

Note: ICIS-NPDES includes historical data for the state of New Jersey; however, as of November 29th, 2012, the state no longer provides EPA with required data about its CWA activities.
RCRAInfoThe Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo) system includes data for hazardous waste handlers and includes information on treatment, storage, and disposal facilities regarding permit/closure status, compliance with federal and state regulations, and cleanup activities.3/21/20153/28/2015
SDWISThe Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) contains information on public water systems, including monitoring, enforcement, and violation data related to requirements established by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).1/13/20154/15/2015
TRIThe Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data include information on the release of chemicals to the environment (emitted to the air or water, or placed in some type of land disposal) and management of chemicals through recycling, energy recovery and/or treatment.

Note: As of 11/22/14, ECHO uses 2013 TRI data.
EISThe Emission Inventory System (EIS) database contains information on stationary sources that emit criteria air pollutants and their precursors, as well as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs).

Note: Data expected to be added in April 2015.
GHGThe Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program offers public access to comprehensive greenhouse gas (GHG) data reported directly to EPA from across the country.3/21/20153/28/2015
ATTAINSThe Assessment, TMDL Tracking, and ImplementatioN System (ATTAINS) contains information on water quality assessments, impaired waters, and total maximum daily loads (TMDLs), through data submitted by states under Clean Water Act sections 303(d) and 305(b).6/20/2014TBD
RADThe Reach Address Database (RAD) contains location information for facilities in Water Programs that have been linked to underlying surface water features in the National Hydrology Database (NHD) Plus dataset, such as watersheds and waterbodies. RAD incorporates waterbody location information from USGS’s Geographic Names Information System (GNIS). The RAD is part of the Watershed Assessment, Tracking & Environmental Results System (WATERS), which links various program databases (e.g., ICIS-NPDES, ATTAINS, BEACON, STORET) to the NHD.6/20/2014TBD
BEACONThe BEach Advisory and Closing Online Notification (BEACON) system contains information on state beach advisory and closing data, related to requirements established under the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act.6/20/2014TBD
U.S. Census DataU.S. Census demographic data from the Census Block Group Data (CBG) database are included. The CBG database is derived from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing Summary Tape Files 1A and 3A.2010NA

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Data Synchronization

  • ECHO data represent “snapshots” of the original source databases and reflect the data as they existed when the data were extracted.
  • Although data are routinely updated, a lag time exists (anywhere from a week up to three months) between when data are entered into the source database and when they appear in ECHO.

Data Completeness

ECHO presents data as-reported to the original source databases. Data contained in EPA national databases generally are more complete for larger facilities. When conducting analyses, understand that the types of facilities that tend to have more complete data are described differently in each source database:

  • Clean Air Act facilities: active, "federally-reportable" sources.
  • Clean Water Act facilities: active, "major" permittees.
  • Hazardous waste facilities: operating treatment, storage, and disposal facilities and active large quantity generators.

Data for smaller facilities can vary widely (i.e., nonexistent, a partial representation, voluntarily entered by some states and not by others). Understanding the mix of required and non-required data helps with interpreting whether ECHO information is complete. Additionally, it can be helpful to consult state environmental agencies or state databases.

Additional information is available to gain a better understanding of the variability among data reporting requirements for regulated facilities:

  • Data Entry Requirements – A matrix illustrating the variability of reporting requirements for the major EPA program systems utilized by ECHO (AFS, ICIS, RCRAInfo, and SDWIS). For example, states are not required to report violations occurring at Clean Water Act non-major facilities, thus data regarding violations at those facilities may not be available via ECHO. This matrix describes such requirements.
  • Inspection frequencies are typically based on the size of the facility, though regulators have options for determining inspection frequency:
    • For example, large or "major" facilities may be inspected/evaluated annually, on a two-year cycle, or even several times during a year
    • Smaller facilities may be inspected/evaluated every five years
    • Compliance may be determined through means other than on-site inspections/evaluations
    • Many facilities are required to self-report certain violations
    • Inspections for smaller CAA and CWA facilities may only be tracked in a state's database and not reflected in the national database
  • Information available for enforcement actions can vary:
    • Enforcement actions that have not been concluded are not displayed in ECHO (however, underlying violations are normally reported prior to completed government enforcement)
    • Criminal enforcement actions are not displayed in ECHO (although ECHO does link to the EPA criminal enforcement cases search page)
    • Note that not all violations receive formal enforcement actions - in fact, many minor violations are corrected by facilities without the need for formal action
    • Enforcement actions taken more than five years ago are not included in facility searches; however, the EPA Enforcement Cases Search (coming soon) will allow searching beyond the past five years, as will other anticipated features
    • The relevant state environmental agency may have additional information
  • Data often are not complete for CWA non-major facilities, because EPA has not finalized regulations requiring entry of such data.
  • Generate a comparative map by selecting the Water tab, choose "Facilities Reporting Discharge Monitoring Reports" and click "Refresh Map" to view completeness of compliance information presented in ECHO.
  • Annual Noncompliance Reports provide summary noncompliance data for CWA non-major facilities. Data from recent reports are displayed on ECHO, as are links to the reports.
  • Guide to Regulated Facilities
  • More State Data through state environmental agency websites

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Data Quality

EPA, authorized or delegated states, tribal and local jurisdictions conduct compliance assurance and enforcement activities related to federal environmental laws. Each level of government works to ensure that information contained in national databases is accurate. The migration of data from many jurisdictions to multiple national program databases is a challenging task. Some state and local jurisdictions directly enter data to national databases, while others maintain their own databases and transfer data to EPA through batch processing. Under both approaches, steps are taken to ensure that the data are of the highest quality (e.g., each national database maintains standards and procedures for ensuring data integrity on a day-to-day basis).

Data are continuously evaluated. Through periodic analysis, conference calls, and national meetings, database managers at all levels of government work to ensure quality information. Additionally:

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Use of ECHO Data

The information contained in ECHO is made available to the public by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for information purposes only. No warranty, express or implied, is made by EPA or any other agency of the U.S. Government regarding the accuracy or completeness of this information.

ECHO is not designed for large scale data transfers or robotic queries. EPA reserves the right to disable users that initiate robotic, programmed queries.

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