National PFAS Datasets

This page contains the following information related to PFAS occurrence, handling, and releases to the environment: 

 


PFAS National Datasets - Background

As part of EPA’s PFAS Strategic Roadmap, the Agency is compiling and integrating a collection of data that can be used to evaluate what is known about per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) reporting, testing, and occurrences in communities. As part of this effort, EPA is integrating data available nationally with other information from states and localities that are testing for PFAS pursuant to their own regulatory initiatives.  The datasets included in this page have a wide range of location-specific data. 

Because much of the data included here are not required to be reported nationally, users should not make conclusions regarding the relative level of PFAS occurrence between different cities, counties, or states.  Areas that are more widely testing and reporting occurrences of PFAS are generally going to have more data than areas collecting or reporting to a lesser extent (or in some cases, not at all). Users should also be aware that many datasets include entries where no PFAS have been detected – which allows a better understanding of where sampling has taken place.

Most of the resources referenced on this page have been downloaded or transferred from public information repositories. Where useful information is not readily accessible from identified information sources, static files and hyperlinked references may be presented so that analysts can retrieve, review and possibly incorporate this information into their work. As EPA and states accelerate efforts to collect and share PFAS data, the amount of information within these files will continue to increase – leading to a more complete picture of PFAS occurrence.


How are PFAS Identified in the National PFAS Datasets?

PFAS are identified using EPA's CompTox Chemicals Dashboard, which contains a list of PFAS with explicit chemical structures and a list of PFAS without explicit chemical structures. Together, these two lists contain greater than 12,000 substances and were last updated in August 2021. View the list of PFAS with explicit structures and the list of PFAS without explicit structures for more information on how the lists were assembled. 

Visit the EPA Chemistry Dashboard to view other chemical lists and sources for PFAS inventories. In curating these datasets, EPA has attempted to include the widest definitions of PFAS so analysts can have the largest possible dataset to begin their research. Note that the definitions used for this dashboard may not be identical to the definition used for a particular reporting resource included in this webpage.


How the National PFAS Datasets Connect to PFAS Data

“Data flow” describes the movement of information from initial data generation through processing and storage and subsequent retrieval for secondary uses. Promoting the flow of PFAS data from widely distributed, local storage towards centralized and accessible repositories is important for the retrieval of data by analytic tools and for analysts seeking to access the widest range of relevant PFAS information. Some PFAS data such as wastewater release monitoring (if called for by an individual NPDES permit) or quadrennial reporting of chemical production is required by statutory programs to be submitted directly to EPA or to be submitted by state regulatory agencies to central data systems, from which records are generally retrievable. Through this project, EPA is also tapping into national data portals that allow for, but don’t necessarily require data.

As illustrated in the following diagram, the dataset connections are designed to extract PFAS data from central data repositories. This design is efficient and it is expected that much of the currently dispersed PFAS data can be submitted to these systems. The white boxes with black text indicate data flows that EPA is currently in process of connecting to the National PFAS Datasetss. The gray boxes below indicate data flows of interest to users that do not yet have a connection to the National PFAS Datasets.


About the Datasets

Detailed Metadata and Important Considerations when using the National PFAS Datasets
The metadata and data dictionaries for the data sources of each of the files below can be found in the complete metadata document (PDF) (739 K) (current as of February 2022). It is important to note that for some of the data collections provided, EPA does not have requirements for the information to be reported on a national level, so in those cases, the data may be skewed toward states that are choosing to report more information than is required. Also, the data files below were created or compiled on different dates and show the occurrence of PFAS at a facility, public drinking water system, or site as of that date; this may not reflect the current situation.
Ambient Environmental Sampling for PFAS

The Water Quality Portal (WQP) is a part of a modernized repository storing ambient sampling data for all environmental media and tissue samples. A wide range of federal, state, tribal and local governments, academic and non-governmental organizations and individuals submit project details and sampling results to this public repository. The information is commonly used for research and assessments of environmental quality. As of early 2021, the WQP contained the results and metadata associated with over 80,000 PFAS samples of water, soil, sediment, and biota (e.g., tissue).

To submit ambient sampling data to the Water Quality Exchange (the system receiving sampling data that is published via the Water Quality Portal), an organization or individual must first have or set up user accounts with both EPA’s Central Data Exchange (CDX) and the Water Quality Exchange. Before setting up new accounts, check with your colleagues as many state agencies and environmental research organizations have accounts as well as staff with experience with the data exchange processes.  Users can submit project and sampling data via WQX web interface or custom XML data uploads. The commercial EQUIS platform, used for storing data from contaminated sites and field investigations, has an export template designed for upload to WQX. Detailed instructions can be found at Water Quality Data (WQX). If your organization has ambient water measurement, soil testing, sediment testing, air testing, or biota testing, that data will appear in the WQP PFAS Data Download  if your organization submits data through the Water Quality Exchange/Portal.

Caveats and Limitations: EPA did not carry out the sampling or testing of a majority of the data in the Water Quality Portal PFAS dataset. EPA can only speak to the accuracy and completeness of the data from projects like the National Aquatic Resource Survey for which EPA is the data owner/organization. Data may exist within the file on Quality Assurance Project Plans (QAPPs) and the approving agency of the QAPP, if a QAPP is entered.

Data Refresh Interval: Quarterly

 (12 MB) (Data File Creation 01/03/2022)

Drinking Water Testing (UCMR)

The Safe Drinking Water Act requires EPA to administer a surveillance program to determine the prevalence of unregulated contaminants in finished water provided by community water systems. Every five years a maximum of 30 unregulated chemicals are monitored in public drinking water systems serving over 10,000 people and a representative sample of smaller PWSs. The monitoring data are stored in the National Contaminant Occurrence Database (NCOD) and made available to the public in static downloads. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR) 3 included sampling of six perfluorinated compounds over the time period 2012-2016. UCMR 5 (2023-2025) will include sampling of 29 PFAS (the six compounds included in UCMR 3 and an additional 23 PFAS chemicals).

Caveats and Limitations: The monitoring for 6 PFAS in public water systems occurred from January 2013 to December 2016.  Since then, many water providers have taken action to reduce PFAS presence in finished drinking water. The data therefore does not show current drinking water exposures, but rather highlights areas where people might want to look further for the latest information, starting with their local drinking water provider. Additionally, ZIP-codes-served information in this file does not necessarily correlate to exposure to PFAS, as these ZIP codes are not the definitive service areas (i.e., a PWS may only serve a small portion of a ZIP Code it has listed as serving). 

Data Refresh Interval: Data for additional PFAS sampling under the UCMR is expected after sampling begins in 2023. 

 (24 MB) (Data File Creation 01/03/2022)

Drinking Water Testing (State)

A number of states and individual public water systems have been testing source water and finished water for PFAS, but these records are not maintained by EPA in a national repository. EPA has provided states that are regulating and/or testing PFAS with a mechanism to store/report PFAS data that is associated with state-specific PFAS regulations. Because this is not a standardized national reporting stream, it is important to recognize that some states report no data, and states that do report have varying requirements relating to which chemicals are tested, which test methods are used, which water supplies need to report, and how often samples are taken.  

As of January 2021, EPA was able to compile data for eight states that have used EPA’s reporting module (SDWIS-State). The information is retrieved on a semi-annual basis – primarily from state web pages where the information is published. For another set of nine states, PFAS testing information was retrieved from static files published by individual states (retrieved September 16, 2021). This initial effort was restricted to states reporting similar occurrence information. For inclusion in the National PFAS Data Files, EPA standardized data field names from each state file to create a single dataset. It is important to note that some data gaps exist within this data set as some States have reported more data elements related to their sampling efforts than others (e.g., Sample Location ID).

Caveats and Limitations: This data file includes aggregated data from multiple state sampling initiatives. These initiatives vary in sampling/targeting methods (e.g., non-targeted analysis vs. targeted analysis), scope (e.g., percentage and type of public water system), detection limits, sample location, reporting limits, quantification methods, what data elements are reported, and even what data are reported (e.g., some states choosing only to report detections while other states report all test results). Because of these significant differences in how states are collecting data, the information in this file should not be compared across state boundaries. EPA intends to continue adding data from more states that make it available (you may notify EPA at pfasdata@epa.gov if you are aware of published state data that could be included in future versions)

Data Refresh Interval: Intermittent

 (24 MB) (Data File Creation 01/03/2022)

PFAS Manufacture and Imports

EPA issued the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) Rule under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and requires chemical manufacturers and facilities that manufacture or import chemical substances to report data to EPA. EPA publishes non-confidential business information (non-CBI) and includes descriptive information about each site, corporate parent, production volume, other manufacturing information, and processing and use information.

Facilities submit their CDR reporting directly to EPA, with no state role in this data flow. The most recent round of reporting was submitted to EPA in 2020 and required chemical substance reporting for years 2016-2019. While there are a variety of reporting thresholds, sites manufacturing or importing 25,000 pounds or more of a chemical substance in a given year are required to report to CDR. As of this publication, the 2020 TSCA CDR data were not publicly available; data from the 2012 and 2016 CDR and 1998, 2002, and 2006 Inventory Update Reporting (IUR) Rule are provided below. Additional details regarding CDR are available on the Chemical Data Reporting page.

Caveats and Limitations: This data file includes production and importation data for chemicals identified in EPA’s CompTox Chemicals Dashboard list of PFAS without explicit structures and list of PFAS structures in DSSTox.  Note that some regulations have specific chemical structure requirements that define PFAS differently than the lists in EPA’s CompTox Chemicals Dashboard. Reporting information on manufactured or imported chemical substance amounts should not be compared between facilities, as some companies claim Chemical Data Reporting Rule data fields for PFAS information as Confidential Business Information. 

Data Refresh Interval: Every four years.

(133 K) (Data File Creation 01/03/2022)

Superfund Sites with PFAS Detections
EPA's Office of Land and Emergency Management and EPA Regional Offices maintain data describing what is known about site investigations, contamination, and remedial actions under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) where PFAS is present in the environment. The data are periodically updated by EPA programs and Regional Offices.
Caveats and Limitations: Detections of PFAS at National Priorities List sites do not mean that people are at risk from PFAS, are being exposed to PFAS, or that the site is the source of the PFAS.
The information in the Superfund NPL and SAA PFAS detection site list is several years old and may not be accurate today. Site information such as site name, site ID, and location has been confirmed for accuracy; however, PFAS-related information such as media sampled, drinking water being above the health advisory, or mitigation efforts has not been verified.
For Federal Facilities data, the other Federal agencies (OFA) are the lead agency for their data and provided them to EPA.
Data Refresh Interval: Intermittent
Download the Superfund Sites with PFAS Detections Dataset (XLSX) (81 K) (Data File Creation 02/23/2022) 
Clean Water Act Discharge Monitoring 
Any discharger of pollutants to waters of the United States from a point source must have a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. The process for obtaining limits involves the regulated entity (permittee) disclosing releases in a NPDES permit application and the permitting authority (typically the state but sometimes EPA) deciding whether to require monitoring or monitoring with limits. If monitoring (and/or limits) are required in the permit, monitored flow and concentrations are regularly reported to the state or EPA and stored in the Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS)-NPDES, the data system of record. EPA’s Water Pollutant Loading Tool derives annual pollutant loadings from the permit and DMR data in ICIS-NPDES.

Caveats and Limitations: Less than half of states have required PFAS monitoring for at least one of their permittees and fewer states have established PFAS effluent limits for permittees. New rulemakings have been initiated that may increase the number of facilities monitoring for PFAS in the future (Read More: Preliminary Effluent Guidelines Program Plan). For states that may have required monitoring, there may exist some reporting and data transfer issues on a state-by-state basis. More details on those issues and additional caveat information can be found in ECHO’s Known Data Problems and the Loading Tool Documentation
Data Refresh Interval: Quarterly
 (938 K) (Data File Creation 01/03/2022)
Federal Sites
Several federal entities, such as the federal Superfund program, Department of Defense, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of Transportation, and Department of Energy provided information for sites with known or suspected detections at federal facilities. 
In response to Section 335 of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for FY2021, DoD published a listing of notifications to agricultural operations [Exit] located within one mile of military installations or National Guard facilities where PFAS has been detected in the groundwater from a known or suspected PFAS release at the DoD site.
Caveats and Limitations: The sites on this list do not necessarily reflect the source(s) of PFAS contamination and detections do not indicate level of risk or human exposure at the site. The dataset on agricultural notifications only includes Department of Defense sites (data are not available for other Federal agency sites). EPA is aware that the list included here is not comprehensive of all Federal agencies but is working to continue developing the dataset.
Data Refresh Interval: Intermittent
 (123 K) (Data File Creation 02/23/2022)
Facilities in Industries that May be Handling PFAS
Regulators and the public have expressed interest in knowing which regulated entities may be using PFAS. EPA has developed a dataset from various sources that show which industries may be handling PFAS. Approximately 120,000 facilities subject to federal environmental programs have operated or currently operate in industry sectors with processes that may involve handling and/or release of PFAS. The datasets that feed EPA’s Enforcement and Compliance History Online (ECHO) integrates records from a range of federal regulatory programs (e.g., Clean Water Act, Clean Air Act, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) at the facility level. ECHO records are restricted to potential PFAS-handling industry sectors identified from literature reviews and field investigations by several EPA offices. The current list of industry sectors potentially handling or releasing PFAS can be found in the PFAS Handling Industry Sectors (XLSX) (20 K) document. Note that inclusion of a facility in the ECHO PFAS Industry Sectors dataset does not indicate that PFAS are actually being manufactured, processed, used, or released by the facility. The Industry Sectors dataset was supplemented with two additional data sources outside of Industry Sector Code lookups - Fire Training Sites and 14 CFR Part 139 Airports, described below.
Fire Training Sites
A list of fire training sites was added to the Industry Sectors dataset using a keyword search on the permitted facility's name to identify sites where fire-fighting foam may have been used in training exercises. Additionally, you may view an example spreadsheet of the subset of fire training facility data (XLSX) (47 K) (current as of January 2021), as well as the keywords used in selecting or deselecting a facility for the subset. as well as the keywords used in selecting or deselecting a facility for the subset. These keywords were tested to maximize accuracy in selecting facilities that may use fire-fighting foam in training exercises, however, due to the lack of a required reporting field in the data systems for designating fire training sites, this methodology may not identify all fire training sites or may potentially misidentify them.
14 CFR Part 139 Airports
Since July 1, 2006, all certified part 139 airports are required to have fire-fighting foam onsite that meet military specifications (MIL-F-24385) (14 CFR 139.317). To date, these military specification fire-fighting foams are fluorinated and have been historically used for training and extinguishing. The 2018 FAA Reauthorization Act has a provision stating that no later than October 2021, FAA shall not require the use of fluorinated AFFF. This provision does not prohibit the use of fluorinated AFFF at Part 139 civilian airports; it only prohibits FAA from mandating its use. The Federal Aviation Administration’s document AC 150/5210-6D - Aircraft Fire Extinguishing Agents provides guidance on Aircraft Fire Extinguishing Agents, which includes Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF). This subset of data, compiled from historic and current records from FAA Airport Data (XLSX) (8 MB) (August 2018), was added to the Industry Sectors dataset to show airports historically required to have these fluorinated foams onsite.
Caveats and Limitations: Inclusion of a facility in the Industry Sectors dataset does not indicate that PFAS are being manufactured, processed, used, or released by the facility. If referring to this file, it is important to note that listed facilities potentially handle PFAS based on their industrial profile. EPA has not confirmed whether each individual facility on the list actually handles PFAS. Keyword searches in ECHO for Fire Training sites may misidentify some facilities and should not be considered to be an exhaustive list of fire training facilities in the United States.
Data Refresh Interval: Quarterly
 (51 MB) (Data File Creation 01/03/2022)
Transfers
Every shipment of hazardous waste in the U.S. must be accompanied by a shipment manifest, which is a critical component of the cradle-to-grave tracking of wastes mandated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The RCRA e-Manifest system launched in mid-2018 and now receives virtually all digital and coded paper manifests. While manifests may be submitted soon after the shipment is complete, e-manifest records in the e-Manifest system are considered complete 90 days after being received by the designated facility.
 
An individual manifest contains RCRA waste codes that describe the constituents of the waste. These codes typically refer to industrial processes (e.g., petroleum refinery wastewater treatment sludges), a category of waste (e.g., spent solvents), or characteristics of the waste (e.g., ignitability). When multiple RCRA waste codes are used to describe a waste, it can only be presumed that waste code is present, as only the total amount of the shipment is reported; however, the amount of waste associated with each waste code cannot be determined. Also, the total amount of waste reported includes other commingled materials that may or may not be hazardous. Currently no Federal Waste Code exists for any PFAS compounds. Only one state, Vermont, is using  state-specific waste codes (VT21 & VT22) that specify PFAS containing wastes. To work around the lack of PFAS waste codes in the RCRA database, EPA developed the PFAS Transfers dataset by mining e-Manifest records containing at least one of these common PFAS keywords: • PFAS • PFOA • PFOS • PERFL • AFFF • GENX • GEN-X (plus the VT waste codes). These keywords were searched for in the following text fields: • Manifest handling instructions (MANIFEST_HANDLING_INSTR) • Non-hazardous waste description (NON_HAZ_WASTE_DESCRIPTION) • DOT printed information (DOT_PRINTED_INFORMATION) • Waste line handling instructions (WASTE_LINE_HANDLING_INSTR) • Waste residue comments (WASTE_RESIDUE_COMMENTS).
Caveats and Limitations: Amount or concentration of PFAS being transferred cannot be determined from the manifest information. Keyword searches may misidentify some manifest records that do not contain PFAS. This dataset should also not be considered to be exhaustive of all PFAS waste transfers.
Data Refresh Interval: Quarterly
 (1 MB) (Data File Creation 01/03/2022)
Spills
The National Response Center (NRC) serves as an emergency call center that fields initial reports for pollution and railroad incidents and forwards that information to appropriate federal/state agencies for response. The spreadsheets posted to the NRC website contain initial incident data that has not been validated or investigated by a federal/state response agency. Response center calls from 1990 to the most recent complete calendar year where there was indication of Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) usage are included in this dataset. NRC calls may reference AFFF usage in the “Material Involved” or “Incident Description” fields.
Caveats and Limitations: The data file compiled from spreadsheets posted to the National Response Center website contain initial incident data that has not been validated or investigated by a federal/state response agency. Keyword searches may misidentify some incident reports that do not contain PFAS. This dataset should also not be considered to be exhaustive of all PFAS spills/release incidents.
Data Refresh Interval: Annually
 (233 K) (Data File Creation 02/23/2022)
Toxics Release Inventory
The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) tracks the management of certain chemicals that may be harmful to human health or the environment by more than 21,000 facilities throughout the United States and its territories. Annual reporting is required to provide information to the public on environmental releases and other waste management activities of TRI-listed chemicals in their communities. The TRI provides EPA with data and information for prioritization purposes and to assist the Agency in determining the need for future regulations. U.S. facilities in covered industry sectors, as well as federal facilities must report annually the quantities of each TRI-reportable chemical they released to the environment and/or managed as waste through recycling, energy recovery, treatment, or have transferred offsite for such purposes. A "release" of a chemical means that it is emitted to air or water, or disposed of to land on-site or off-site. Learn more about the TRI Program.
The TRI data gathered and presented in this tool are restricted to the PFAS added to the TRI chemical list per the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) and to other TRI-listed organic chemicals that contain fluorine atoms and are also found on EPA’s CompTox Chemicals Dashboard lists of PFAS structures in DSSTox and PFAS without explicit structures. Note that the chemical substances listed on the two above CompTox Chemicals Dashboard lists are not all considered to be PFAS by EPA’s Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT).
Reporting on the NDAA TRI PFAS additions was implemented for calendar year 2020. The NDAA provided a framework that enables additional PFAS to be added to the TRI chemical list in future calendar years (e.g., 2021, 2022) and will be subsequently added and reflected in future iterations of these files.
Caveats and Limitations: This data file includes releases and waste management data for chemicals identified in EPA’s CompTox Chemicals Dashboard list of PFAS without explicit structures and list of PFAS structures in DSSTox. Note that some regulations have specific chemical structure requirements that define PFAS differently than the lists in EPA’s CompTox Chemicals Dashboard. It is strongly recommended to consult the latest reported TRI data on the program website to review PFAS reporting as considered by the TRI Program.
Data Refresh Interval: Twice a Year. Refresh occurs in the Fall of each Calendar Year and the Spring of the following year.
Please see the metadata document (PDF) (739 K) on how the three data files below are created.
(126 K) (Data File Creation 02/18/2022)
(54 K) (Data File Creation 02/18/2022)
(136 K) (Data File Creation 02/18/2022)

What's New

The National PFAS Datasets were just released. Updates to data files (e.g. new data fields) or new datasets will be published in this section in the future.


Additional Resources

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