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Analyze Trends: EPA/State Pesticide Dashboard
The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) authorizes EPA to regulate pesticide production, distribution, sale and use. Individuals applying pesticides must do so in a manner consistent with federal laws and regulations and also consistent with state/tribal laws and regulations, which may differ from state to state or tribe to tribe. Most states, territories and several tribes have primary authority for compliance monitoring and enforcement against the use of pesticides in violation of the labeling requirements (primacy).
The Pesticide Dashboard provides interactive charts that present a summary of key activities related to the FIFRA regulated community and answers questions like: how many facilities in the United States manufacture pesticides or employ workers covered by the Worker Protection Standard; how many have been inspected, and how many have violations and enforcement taken by states, tribes, and/or EPA. Further information on the charts and tables can be found on the Pesticide Dashboard Help page.
The Pesticide Dashboard has two views:
- The Worker Protection Standard (WPS) dashboard is focused on the universe of agricultural operations employing farm workers and pesticide handlers protected by the Worker Protection Standard.
- The Establishments dashboard is focused on the regulated universe of pesticide-producing establishments, which includes pesticide manufacturers, sellers, and distributors.
State and tribal performance is a complex and difficult matter to analyze and explain. The data do not provide a complete picture of performance. Some states and tribes have expressed concerns with data completeness and accuracy, and without investigation and program knowledge, data can be misleading or misinterpreted without thorough investigation and program knowledge. There is important context surrounding data that must be taken into account to provide an accurate picture. For example, not all activities and violations may be reported. Some states or tribes do not have authorization to administer programs. EPA uses data, such as the information here, as one aspect of a multi-faceted method for assessing state performance; Thus, raw data are not the sole measure of performance. The multi-faceted program reviews assess the programs in areas outlined in the FIFRA Cooperative Agreement Guidance issued jointly by the Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance (OECA) and the Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP). This process may also identify needed state or tribal program improvements. Program reporting, and file reviews coupled with management discussions, contribute to greater understanding, but the many layers of context and information make it challenging to portray performance in a consistent and transparent way.
The most recent available federal fiscal year data are shown and updated annually. State and tribal data are from the state or tribe's cooperative agreement year. Cooperative agreement years are generally the federal fiscal year (October 1 – September 30), state fiscal year (July 1 – June 30), or another date agreed to under the agreement.
Activities and Violations
Data shown in the State and Tribal Dashboards are based on information in EPA databases and data reported from EPA databases such as ICIS; information reported to EPA by states and tribes on the 5700-33H forms; and data from the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) 2007 and 2012 Census of Agriculture. The data do not reflect all compliance monitoring/inspections or enforcement activities, nor the full extent of enforcement activity within a state or tribe. More detailed information about the information in EPA databases, including state-by-state comments, may be found at ECHO Data.
In general, under FIFRA, states have primary enforcement authority (primacy) for compliance monitoring and for enforcement of pesticide use requirements within their state. States with primacy conduct inspections and enforce against the mis-use of pesticides; uses in violation of labeling requirements. The state agency that has primacy for pesticides differs among states. In most cases, a state's department of agriculture has primacy, but this responsibility may also be within a state environmental or public health agency or other subdivision of the state. While FIFRA does not authorize tribes to be granted primacy, EPA may treat tribes who have cooperative enforcement agreements with EPA and have appropriate tribal enforcement authority as having primacy.
On the dashboard, in instances where a state or tribe does not have primacy, if that state or tribe is selected from the drop down menu as the implementing agency, it may appear that no activity was conducted. Select EPA as the implementing agency, and activity in these states or territories will be displayed. Some states, territories, and tribes have few, if any pesticide-producing establishments and will not have any activities reported. Likewise, some states or tribes have few agricultural operations covered under the Worker Protection Standard and will record fewer inspections. Currently, the only state without primacy is Wyoming.
The number of tribes with cooperative enforcement agreements varies from year to year. While many tribes have operated under pesticide cooperative enforcement agreements for several years, other tribal programs may be new with only a few years of data available. Additionally, some tribes operate “circuit rider” programs, where inspectors from one tribe conduct inspections on several tribes’ lands under agreements with those tribes. Tribes may also operate pesticide compliance and enforcement programs under their own tribal authority and regulations. Inspections and enforcement actions conducted under those sovereign programs are not EPA reviewed or reported, and are not included in the Dashboard.